Justin Hall's personal site growing & breaking down since 1994

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many of these titles have been used across the categories listed below; they have been cited in their primary area of information.


many of the ideas in this thesis stem from years of discussion with Howard Rheingold as well as his writings on the subject of technology, ethics and history: specifically Tools for Thought and the Virtual Community both come highly recommended. his more recent questioning of technological totality: "What Technophiles Need to Know: A Work In Progress" has been instructive and timely. besides his books, he has supplied much of technology bibliography. in addition, his direct feedback on the course of this thesis has been invaluable.

my thesis advisors at swarthmore:
Phil Weinstein, of the English department, is largely responsible for forcing me to shape my ideas, broadly but still shaped, prior to writing.
Timothy Burke, History Department, has provided specific technology critique. He's also one of the few Humanities/Social Sciences professors who actively, creatively maintains his own web site. My directed reading in Cultural Studies with him informed much of my analysis herein.
Kenneth Gergen has offered a sense of confidence throughout that there would be a way to pursue what i didn't yet envision completely within these hollowed walls. Taking his course Technology Self and Society well bolstered my bibliography.

for intellectual stimulation, patience and guidance i thank Amy, who told me to stop messing around and get writing; and Mom, who proofread and critiqued my thesis from her distinct and valuable perspective (as well as making possible the formal and informal education that informs this writing).

my roomates wilson kello and ben relentlessly teased me: ben consistently described my special major ("meaning context and media") as "me, me and me" and each teased me by repeating "thesis" in a high nasal tone. towards the end of the process, wilson gave me valuable feedback on my written obtuseness, and ben councelled me to avoid believing people who proposed fluoridation problems or vaccination side effects.

much of the work in this thesis is predated by the more personal manifold manifest: a young person's information appliance; an extended writing project i took up in september 1996, and dropped in november of that year. that document contains many of the relationship references responsible for earlier thoughts now pursued further here.

my dictionary was The American Heritage Dictionary, Dell, New York, 1988; a student paperback sort of affair.

i get regular technology/news updates from Wired News and the New York Times.

for my web searches, i use Yahoo/Alta Vista and occasionally Hotbot:

Yahoo and Alta Vista:

hotbot Returns results with
extensive quoting of certain newsmagazines is less a sign of media preference than medium preference; journalism reproduced online was simply easier to search and quote for my purposes.

the Rheingold/Brainstorms Community has been helpful in conversation on my thesis topic in particular, and other technology/history/societal questions as well.

most illustrations appearing in this thesis come from the web at large; when not otherwise cited, the pictures themselves link to the source site.



Ray Hopkins, Political Science department, Swarthmore College.

Ethan Holland, Swarthmore '98, agreed to be interviewed about food distribution.

Michael Alexander, The Earliest English Poems, Penguin Books, London, 1991

Internet Food Science Resources,

Medieval/Renaissance Food Homepage,
which lead me to Food in England Since 1066 -- A Vegetarian Evolution?, by John Davis,, compiled quotes largely from The English: A Social History 1066-1945, by C. Hibbert, Grafton Books; with original sources subcited.

Marketing, Its Role In Increasing Productivity, Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations, Rome, 1962

Joh Robbins, Diet for a New America
recommended by Seth.

twinkie icon from twinkie testing site

heatermeals banner from


Technology Of Fortification Of Foods, National Academy Of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1975

George F. Stewart And Maynard A. Amerine, Introduction To Food Science And Technology, Academic Press, New York, 1973

the idea of fortifying 40s (of malt liquor) came up in conversation with duncan kirkpatrick and wilson kello, wilson kello suggested it.

40 label collage from confused's home page

nutrition facts label from

FDA on the new labelling:


The Glutamate Association 1997, "Monosodium Glutamate: A Look At The Facts,", winter 1998

the National Organization Mobilized to Stop Glutamate,, winter 1998

Jean Anderson and Barbara Deskins, Monosodium Glutamate page, The Nutrition Bible, William Morrow & Company, Inc., 1995


two courses at swarthmore have been particularly helpful in formulating my approach to olestra: Kaori Kitao's Design of Everyday Things and Timothy Burke's Social History of Consumption., Proctor & Gamble, winter 1998

including commonly asked question: does olestra cause anal leakage?

John Hargrove, "Olé Olestra!," Zug, winter 1998

Olestra Haiku / Olean Haiku / Z-Trim Haiku page, winter 1998

"Questions and Answers about Olestra," faculty members at The Ohio State University Food Science and Technology Department,, 1998

"FDA Approves Fat Substitute Olestra,"

"The FACTS on Olestra," Center for Science in the Public Interest, 1998

Michael D. Lemonick, "Are We Ready For Fat-Free Fat?," Time Magazine cover story, 8 January 1996, Volume 147, No. 2

diet pills

Frederic Golden, "Who's To Blame For Redux And Fenfluramine?", Time Magazine, September 29, 1997, pages 78-9

Michael D. Lemonick, "The New Miracle Drug?," Time Magazine, September 23, 1996 Volume 148, No. 15, accompanied online by Redux: Special Report, which is where i got the spinning redux pill graphics.

on his web site, Ben Z. Krentzman, M.D., a weight loss specialist practicing in Culver City, California, posted many documents and links concerning weight loss drugs. i took his reproduced press releases and package inserts at face value - i don't believe he faked that stuff.

FDA clears Redux (dexfenfluramine) for marketing to treat obesity, press release, Interneuron Pharmaceuticals Inc., April 29, 1996

Phentermine Package Insert, as sold in Ionamin, 17 September 1996

his overview: Merida Page on the Science of Obesity and Weight Control

Knoll Pharmaceutical Company Receives FDA Clearance to Market MERIDIA, December '97 Press Release, Knoll Pharmaceutical

Andrew Weil, "Weight Loss With Redux?," Ask Dr Weil, from the Time/Warner Pathfinder web site, undated.

Andrew Weil, "Why was Redux Pulled Off the Market?," Ask Dr Weil, from the Time/Warner Pathfinder web site, undated.

Christine Gorman, "Redux On The Ropes," Time Magazine, June 23, 1997 Vol. 149 No. 25

the weight loss war "battle has been won" graphic came from the Medical Weight Management Ltd web site at

the Merida graphic came from, run by Knoll Pharmaceutical


my thanks to lynn hall for her interview on the subject.


electronic babysitting

Barrie Gunter & Jill Mcaleer, Children & Television, Second Edition, Routledge, London, 1997

John P. Murray And Barbara Lonnborg, Children And Television, Kansas State University, march 1995

Hilde Therese Himmelweit, A. N. Oppenheim [and] Pamela Vince, Television and the child, published for the Nuffield Foundation by the Oxford University Press, London, New York, 1958

Aletha C. Huston, et al., Big world, small screen: the role of television in American society, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1992 - from the findings of a 1986 panel appointed by the American Psychological Association

Marie Winn, The Plug-In Drug, Viking Press, New York, 1977

the argument between bennett and katz is online: here.

Mark Colins and Margaret Mary Kimmel, editors, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 1996

during the semester when i was composing this thesis i was active in Two Fisted Features, screening and showing agressive movies. the best of this genre, particularly the quick paced artfully choreographed works of Jet Li, John Woo and Jackie Chan, broadened my sense of appropriate violence.

A-Team graphics from sockii's A-Team Home Page and ultimately from the unofficial a-team home page.



the End of Life series web site from NPR
thanks Charlie Mayer.

Jorge Argueta, Love Street, translated by Margot Pepper, Tiki Bob Publishing, San Francisco, 1991

Cyanide used in death linked to Kevorkian," CNN, May 15, 1998, online

"Kevorkian arrested outside pawn shop", CNN, November 7, 1996, online for red photo

the Kevorkian File, at Deathnet

International Anti-Euthanasia Task Force web site


i had some trouble researching this until i realized it's not spelled flouride (u-o, strange letter order to see).

Breseis Gatto, Book Review: Fluoride the Aging Factor, by John Yiamouyiannis, Health Action Press, 1993, posted online at, from the Natural Immunity Information Network.

Robert L. Crain, Elihu Katz and Donald B. Rosenthal, the Politics of Community Conflict: the Flouridation Decision, the Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis, 1969
this book provided necessary historial socio-political information on fluoridation in the US.

David R. Hill, Fluoride: risks and benefits?, presented to the public forum on fluoride and fluoridation, sponsored by the Chemical Institute of Canada, and CADACT, held at the Petroleum Recovery Institute, Calgary, Tuesday September 29th 1992, and updated in August 1997. I found this article up at, the Fluoride: Protected Pollutant or Panacea? web site.

Elke Babiuk, Fluoride: Protected Pollutant or Panacea?, a submission to the Operations & Environment Committee, Health Action Network Society, Alberta Chapter, September 10, 1997, revised and updated January, 13, 1998. I found this article up at, a web site by the same name.

George E. Meinig, D.D.S, "Fluorine Could Be Trouble," January 5, 1986, the article originally appeared in the Ojai Valley News, i found it at Fluoride Issues,

from the American Dental Association web site:

"Fluoridation Facts: Safety," Question 15,

"ADA: FDA overstates toothpaste danger",, position statement, 19 june 1997.

News release, "Study Suggests Too Much Toothpaste Causes Fluorosis," December 1995,

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Consumer Confidence Reports, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142, 2040-AC 99

"EPA: Utilities should divulge tap water contents," CNN,, February 11, 1998

fluorigard illustration from

"Dr. Strangelove Or: How I Learned To Stop Worrying And Love The Bomb (1964)," a film review by Tim Dirks,

Michael Hacker, Quote Gallery, "Dr. Strangelove - Hackers of the World Unite!,"


conversation with Professor Bernard Saffran, of the Economics Department, Swarthmore College, spring 1998.

october 2, 1997 notes taken during introduction to economics class with professor Bernard Saffran.

Rodney Mabry & Holley Ulbrich, Economics: Second Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1994

Natural Immunity Information Network supplied some death area graphics as well as information on vaccines.

Barbara Loe Fisher, The Vaccine Reaction, Vol. 1, No. 1, and Vol. 2, No. 4, the National Vaccine Information Center, December 1996

The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986

Neil Z. Miller, Vaccines: Are They Really Safe And Effective?, New Atlantean Press, Santa Fe, 1996

from ethan devine, from his mom. have you read it? "no. but i have it so that if someone asks me why i'm not vaccinated, i can go read up and tell them."

"U.S. troops in Gulf 1st to get anthrax vaccine," CNN, March 3, 1998, online

"Rash Worries," the Economist, April 11, 1998 (i found the article online the week it came out, but you won't be able to see it there without an account; sorry) (Saffran)

spring 1998 private conversation with Teodor Florea, Swarthmore Political Philosophy major writing his thesis on Conspiracy Theories.

Maria B, mother of two and relative of mine by marriage provided her vaccine perspective.

never did get to read MONEY magazine (December '9? issue) featuring an 11-page article called "The Lethal Dangers of the Billion Dollar Vaccine Business."



Mark Dery, Escape Velocity, Grove Press, New York, 1996 (Howard)

Stephanie Mills, Editor, Turning Away From Technology, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1997 (Howard)

Ellen Ullman, Close to the Machine, City Lights, San Francisco, 1997 (Howard)

Isaiah Berlin, The Hedgehog and the Fox, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1953 (Howard)

Kylian Robinson, In Case of Fires, Do Not Use Elevators Use Stairways, thesis submitted to the Swarthmore College Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Spring 1997

CNN reports on bulletproof BMWs, April 20, 1998

GK recommends Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow, bantam paperback, page 607:

the quote that starts: "yes but technology only responds..."

the little gear graphic came from street tech.

the animated spinning gear graphics come from gear technology. the red streaks eminating from a gear center is from the reliance gear corporation logo. the gear strip came from the blue interlocked gears are the logo for Mr. Gear Inc..

the little dude at the desk with computer cartoon, Michael Scandizzo, Boat Anchor

the hunched dudes and mzbradley quote from link98 web site.


Professor Gerald Q. "Chip" Maguire Jr. made a speech at SIME '97 mentioning eyechip implants, and i followed up with some personal email research.

Technology And Handicapped People, US Congress Office Of Technology Assessment, May 1982

Kristi Coale, "Sight for Poor Eyes: Hard-Wiring the Retina," Wired News,, 22.Jan.97

the electrode graphic came from the retinal prosthesis home page at North Carolina State University.


Esther Dyson, Release 2.0: a design for living in the digital age, Broadway Books, New York, 1997
thanks to the guy who works for Hewlett Packard sitting next to me on the plane from phl to sfo, because i wouldn't have bothered otherwise.

Robert D. Kaplan, "Was Democracy Just A Moment?," The Atlantic Monthly, December 1997 (Howard)

Alvin Toffler, Future Shock, Random House, New York, 1970

Charles and Ray Eames, Powers of Ten: About the Relative Size of Things in the Universe and the Effect of Adding Another Zero, made by the Office of Charles and Ray Eames, 1977;8:47m; color.
shown to me by Nick Philip with Lisa Seaman, at ramona street, 1994.

Jack Boulware, "MONDO 1995," SF Weekly, October 11, 1995 (Volume 14, #35)

Marshall Sahlins, Stone Age Economics, Aldine-Atherton, Chicago, 1972

Richard Tarnas, The Passion Of The Western Mind, Ballantine Books, New York, 1991 (Howard)

Norman O. Brown, Life Against Death, Wesleyan University Press, Middletown Connecticut, 1985

eight pointed direction graphic is from an elric fan site

Michael Moorcock, Elric of Melnibourne and Chronicles of Corum, two science fiction serieses published by DAW or Ace. he's written an anormous amount about the forces of chaos and order battling through the eternal champion.

"So What!" lyrics by Perry Farrell, music by Jane's Addiction.

Rick Prelinger, Ephemeral Films, seen in Professor Timothy Burke's Social History of Consumption class, spring '96.

Bruce Sterling, Dead Media Project,

Jimi Hendrix, "1983..."

Lawrence Sutin Ed., The Shifting Realities Of Philip K Dick, Pantheon, New York, 1995

Dr. Robert Markison, notion of the technology treadmill, interview, March 1997.

Merritt Roe Smith and Leo Marx, editors, Does Technology Drive History? : the dilemma of technological determinism, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1994

James Glave, "Weather Data Lost in Space," Wired News, online, May 20, 1998

"Wayward Satellite Wreaks Havoc," Reuters/Wired News, online, May 20, 1998

"Another satellite to replace wayward pager relay," CNN, online, May 20, 1998

Mark Dery, Escape Velocity web site provided the Tetsuo: Iron Man image.

Shinya Tsukamoto, Tetsuo: Iron Man, video, 1992

flesh-machine art from H.R. Giger


these books i checked out bought or owned, and didn't get to play with.

Ehrenreich, Fear of Falling

Nye, Electrifying America

Fuller, Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth

Vonnegut, Player Piano

McLuhan for Beginners

Fischer, America Calling: A social history of the telephone

Dickson, Politics of Alternative Technology

Boorstin, The Republic of Technology

Staudenmaier, Technology's Storytellers

Pacey, Culture of Technology

Teich, Technology and Man's Future

Florman, Blaming Technology

Winner, Autonomous Technology

Hellman, Technophobia


technology affects food relationships and death determining potential directions for our society.
 - composition
- pills
diet pills
- distribution 
electronic babysitting fluoridation
technological determinism

thesis biblio
how to read this thesis
process notes